This is a draft version of a golf psychology book I’m writing. If you’ve stumbled across this article, I hope you find it of use. I’m writing it in instalments (chapters), so click any of the links below to skip to a desired chapters.
Also, I would love your feedback to help me improve the end product. Please leave you comments, thoughts and feedback at the bottom in the comments section.
Many thanks, Will
Coping strategies – coming soon
Mindset – coming soon
Pressure practice (The mental gym) – coming soon
Being a great caddy (course management) – coming soon
Confidence is king – coming soon
The story of Q-school
Two players are standing in the middle of the 18th fairway next to their tee shots; 175 yards away from the green. Both are excited and nervous in equal measures. It is the final day of qualifying school. They are both tied 16th with the top 15 players getting their cards for the main tour and making it to the big leagues.
The first player gets ready to hit. They pick their target, visual their shot, and step over the golf ball. They focus intently on their swing cue, as they swing the club back they stay committed, but things just don’t feel right. The ball starts fractionally left and curves further left into the water. Their race is ran for another year.
The second golfer tries to re-focus after what they have just seen. They doubt their target choice – Is the target too close to the water? Should they play more conservatively?
Before they know it they are already over their golf ball and starting their take-away. They try to remember what they should be thinking of, but ‘DON’T GO LEFT!’ just keeps creeping back into their mind.
A last minute adjustment in their downswing leads to a horrible heel strike that, somehow, makes it safely onto the putting surface. They breath a sigh of relief. A nervy putt catches the right edge of the hole and they have made it through. Somehow.
This is a the paradox of golf psychology. We often judge psychological skills and mental toughness on performance outcomes, but this is incorrect.
Golf psychology & performance
Great golf psychology is a critical factor in optimising golfing performance. However there is no perfect correlation between thinking and performance.
Instead, view golf psychology and performance in this way.
Your golfing sponge
Every day that you step onto a golf course you have a sponge full of potential golfing performance. Some days this sponge is full of golfing potential. For some mystical reasons, on other days, this sponge feels almost empty. No golfer knows what changes between these two days, but we all know we have to deal with both of these situations when they arise.
Great processes and thinking (golf psychology) is about squeezing the most out of your sponge every day you play golf and practice. It doesn’t guarantee success, but great golf psychology does ensure you squeeze every ounce of golfing potential you have on that day, or for every shot you hit.
It doesn’t guarantee success, but it optimises your chances for any given situation.
Golf psychology skill development
Before we jump in I would like to add a crucial caveat. Thinking great doesn’t just happen. These skills take time to learn and develop. Overtime they fade if they are not used. In this sense, psychological skills are similar to physical fitness, there really is a ‘use it or lose it’ loophole tied in to any work you do.
If you invest time into your thinking now. In four weeks you will start to benefit, but the real rewards will come 3 months, 3 years or even 10 years down the line. These skills should be embedded into your weekly and annual golfing systems and processes.
Let us begin.
The two golfers inside your Head (self-talk)
Central to how you think and how you performance is the internal dialog that swirls around your head. This chatter goes on all day, every day, however we rarely become aware of it.
Your two golfers
On the golf course your self-talk becomes critical to squeezing the most out of your golfing sponge and maximising your performance. Next time you are on the golf course you’ll find you have two golfers inside your head.
Golfer 1’s voice is self-assured and logical. Golfer 1 has a plan, they know what they are here to do. You also have Golfer 2 in your head. Golfer 2’s voice is emotional, they are fearful, sometimes angry and worried. Golf 2 means well but is often short of useful ideas.
The battle all of us face is how these two golfers get on and work as a team. We can’t gouge Golfer 2 out of our Brain. Instead, you have to be aware of both of their voices and work to make them both better at performing as a team when it counts.
Which voice is louder
The first step is to be aware of Golfer 1 and Golfer 2. How do your two golfers talk to each other? How well does Golfer 1 use logic to plan each shot you hit? What tools and strategies does Golfer 1 use to focus you on the task at hand?
What is your Golfer 2 like? Do they interject with worry as you stand over a golf shot? Do they remind you about the last time you thinned a chip shot from a similar lie?
Maybe they react as soon as things go wrong. Their anger flares up after a bad shot and they shout :
“I TOLD YOU WE WERE GOING TO SCREW THAT UP! WHAT ARE YOU DOING YOU #!#$”.
Just as every person on this wonderful planet has slightly different in personality traits. Your two golfers (1 and 2) will have unique characteristics. Some characteristics might be useful, others less so. But these characteristics can be trained and refined over time. Just be aware that on any given day your golfing performance will largely be a product of how these two golfers get on in your head.
Let us look at some common traits of this duo and how to train them.
Imagine a purple Money riding a shiny, red bike. Imagine the purple Monkey riding along a street ringing the bell on his bike – what a sight to see.
Now, don’t imagine a purple Monkey. Whatever you do, don’t think about that purple Monkey riding along on that red bike… You’re still picturing that Monkey aren’t you?
Don’t use don’t
Unfortunately the brain doesn’t process negatives. Don’t get scared, don’t worry, don’t think of a purple Monkey. All three statements focus your attention to the exact concept you’re trying to avoid thinking of.
This is the common dialog of Golfer 2. He is trying to help – “Don’t hit it left into the water”, “Don’t leave this putt short like you did on the last hole”, “Don’t worry about all the people watching you on the 1st tee”.
Golfer 2 mean’s well, but he is shifting your focus on to exactly what you are trying to avoid.
Be goal focused
When this occurs it is time for your logical, Golfer 1, to step in. Golfer 1 needs to calmly step in and remind the team of their goal.
“Our only focus is to make a great swing towards our target. Let’s focus on a small spot on the back of the hole”
This is a critical strategy for performing well under pressure. Both Golfer 1 and 2 will be with you every time you play. Your Golfer 2 will pop up many times during a round with less than ideal advice. There is no need to let your two golfers get into an argument, this distracts both from the task at hand. Instead, train Golfer 1 to step in and get the team focused back on their goal and the target.
The commentators dirty little secret
The commentary above is the real truth about performing well under pressure. It’s a draining experience of fighting fires and settling arguments and managing your thoughts. Unfortunately, this isn’t sexy, it is not how we like to think about elite performers. Instead, we like to put elite golfers on a pedestal and idolise their cool calm personas under pressure.
Recently, a pro I was working with had his first win on his tour. I was delighted for him. I spoke to him before and after the final round about how it went, what he was thinking about and how he dealt with the pressure coming down the final 9-holes.
I then had the pleasure of watching the highlights on Sky Sports. The commentators on TV were talking about how cool and calm he was under all this pressure. Six under par for the 2nd day running, he was a golfing machine to the outside world.
However, under the surface the player was in a 5-hour battle with himself. A great start on the first hole settled the nerves, then a few lapses in concentration followed. He, somehow, scrambled pars for the following three holes, then with an error and some misfortune a double bogey followed. A great long putt dropped from 60-feet around the turn to give him an eagle and the lead again.
Fast-forward and he was stood on the last hole with a one-shot lead. Swinging when your arms and legs are shaking with adrenaline is a challenge, and a slightly pulled tee shot resulted. It dragged the ball into the left-hand rough. he hit a great mid-iron from the rough and found the centre of the green. From there, the player parred the hole, and finished off the tournament.
We don’t hear the reality of playing under pressure because no one wants to admit the truth. Performing well under pressure is anything but calm and smooth. It’s a serious mental battle. You’ll come out the other end battered and bruised, but with some great learnings about how to perform more elegantly in the future.
“Great golfers aren’t superheroes, they are great at managing themselves, their thoughts and their decisions”
Even great players have the same two golfers in their head. They have just trained Golfer 1 and 2 to be a seriously good team.
Negative thoughts aren’t catastrophic
This leads nicely onto the next point. Negative thoughts aren’t catastrophic to your performance – unless you believe them to be.
All great players have negative thoughts. What separates great performers from the also-rans is how they deal with negative thoughts.
Unless you have a time machine you can’t do too much about a negative thought once it has occurred. Great performers acknowledge the thought and then ask Golfer 1 to step in and get them back on track. What is the goal, where is our target.
Lesser performers allow the negative thought to consume them. They invest more attention into that thought. Consider the following example when standing over an important short putt.
Example of poor thinking
Golfer 2 – You don’t like these. You’ve missed a few short putts recently
You’re right – I have missed a few short putt recently
Golfer 2 – Exactly, let me bring back pictures and images of these events… See I told you I’m right…
Before you know it you’ve already hit the putt in a half-focused state. With this thought process going on I doubt you had a successful outcome.
Great golfers still suffer from Golfer 2 butting in, but they deal with it in a different way. They have plans for such a situation. See the following example:
Example of better thinking
Golfer 2 – You don’t like these. You’ve missed a few short putts recently.
Right…re-focus, re-start my routine.
Re-read the putt
Golf 1 – My last few putts have been a little tentative
Golfer 1 – Let’s pick a higher line, visualise the ball hitting the back of the hole and make two positive practice swings before we go
Golfer 1 – standing over the ball – Keep focused, let’s hit the back of the hole with this putt
This second thought process doesn’t guarantee success. But, on average, when negative thoughts do creep in it will far out-perform the first thought sequence.
Just ask yourself – Who would you prefer as a foursomes partner?
Improving your self-talk with paper
Here is my favourite way to begin improving your self-talk and performance.
Next time you play golf take a piece of paper out onto the golf course with you. Start with this piece of paper folded in your left pocket. Every time you have a negative thought, tear off a little square of paper and place it into your right pocket.
At the end of your round count how many squares of paper you have in your right pocket (I hope you have big pockets). This exercise is a real eye-opener. Don’t be surprised if your reach 40 – 60 squares of paper – this is if you are being truly honest with yourself.
Once you have completed this process, write down your total number of negative thoughts for the round. Also record when your negative thoughts mostly occurred :
- Three-quarter wedge shots. I worry about missing right enters during backswing.
- Drives then the wind is off the left.
Total negative thoughts _37_
Next time you play, repeat the process and see if you can beat your score.
Our internal dialog is complex. It feeds into our mood, our performance and how we think about our self. The first stage is becoming aware of your traits. The next step is to refine how you talk to yourself. It’s is an unseen factor that really will improve your ability to perform on the golf course.
Thanks for reading. This is where I’m up to so far. The following sections are under construction, but feel free to have a read.
I would love your thoughts and comments on the sections above. Please leave any thoughts in the comments section at the bottom of this article. Many thanks, Will
Confidence is a global construct. We could describe a golfer a confident, but this sentence has limitations. The golfer may be generally confident, but they may be terrified of hitting Bunker shots when someone is watching. They might feel quite confident striking a wedge, however tentative with a 4-iron in hand.
Self-efficacy is situation specific confidence. It asks how confident you are at a given skill in a given situation. Building self-efficacy in many sub-areas of your game will make you a confident golfer. They are the building blocks of confidence.
To assess a golfer’s self-efficacy takes some digging. In the following section I’ll explain how this links to your golfing performance. Then we will begin assess your current levels of self-efficacy.
How high self-efficacy links to golf performance
Athletes with higher levels of confidence and self-efficacy tend to seek out and enjoy challenges. This is a great mindset when playing golf – viewing each shot as a fun new challenge, but it will also benefit your practice.
Great practice involves continually testing and developing your skills in a challenging manner. However, no one likes continually failing, and we tend to shy away from practicing our weaknesses. Developing your self-efficacy for a parts of your game that are weak will give you a great drive to keep working on them in practice. This improves your skill level, and you will start to enter an upward cycle of growing your self-efficacy and skill level.
Lastly, high levels of self-efficacy and confidence tend to protect against the effect of many negative aspects of performing under pressure. The higher your levels of confidence, the less you will experience anxiety and negative thoughts during pressure situations.
All in all, high levels of confidence and self-efficacy in golf are highly useful.
Building high levels of confidence in your golf game will come from high levels of self-efficacy in sub-parts of your game (listed below). We will aim to develop your self-efficacy in each sub-part. This will start to grow your overall confidence as a golfer.
To begin with, rate your self-efficacy the following areas:
- Fairway woods
- Long irons
- Short-irons & Wedges
- Pitching (75 – 30 yards)
- Chipping (under 30-yards)
- Bunker shots
- Long putting (outside 30-feet)
- Mid-range putting (10 – 30 feet)
- Short putting (inside 10 feet)
Rate yourself on a scale of 1 – 10. 1 = Very unconfident, 10 = Very confident
Next, rate each skill in terms of its importance to your golfing performance: 1 = not at all important, 10 = critically important. You are looking for areas of relatively high importance, with the lowest current levels of self efficacy.
Above is my example. It represents how I feel about my game as I write this article. It’s surprisingly balanced! But as you will see below this is work in progress. I do genuinely feel comfortable with most situations I come across on the golf course.
I’ve selected three areas of my game that are high importance to my performance. For all of these I have relatively high self-efficacy, but my aim is to almost feel cocky in my ability. I would love to ooze confidence within these areas.
Select one, two or three areas for yourself.
Start with any areas of high importance and low self-efficacy, then move to medium importance and so on. If you have any areas with a ‘3’ or less for self-efficacy you best address them no matter how insignificant.
Next, let us look at how we can start building your confidence / self-efficacy.
How to develop self-efficacy
There are four source of self-efficacy, they have the following fancy names. I’ve also added percentage weightings, the weightings are purely my thinking on how much each contributes to developing self-efficacy – no supporting research here 😉
- Performance accomplishments (75%)
- Vicarious experiences (3%)
- Verbal persuasion (7%)
- Emotional control (15%)
If you’ve already won the British Open, you’d feel quite confident about winning it again. Similarly, if you know you hole 97% of putts inside 5-feet, guess how confidence you feel standing over a 3-foot putt?
It is no surprise that this is rated as the biggest source of developing self-efficacy. Think back to the area(s) of your game that you rated the lowest in terms of self-efficacy. How many positive performance accomplishments can you think back to, and how many negative examples can you think of?
There is your answer.
We need to start building positive memories and experiences you can build upon. It’s going to take some time, but I consider 12-weeks to be a good timeframe to start seeing progress if you dedicate a small amount of time each week.
I will briefly cover the other sources, but performance accomplishments is the source we will focus on with a simple task outlined later on in this post.
If we see our friend win a monthly medal, we may think:
“Well Jeff isn’t that great at golf, he can barely get the ball airborne! If Jeff can do it, I’m sure I can”
This is known as gaining self-efficacy through observing others that we feel are similar to us. It’s no where near as powerful as our own performance accomplishments but it is a factor.
The third source of self-efficacy is positive comments we receive from others. The source of the verbal persuasion is crucial.
If I played 18 holes with Butch Harmon and he told me I have a good chance of making the British Open next year I would take value from it.
If Jeff, who won the monthly medal above told me the same thing. I would appreciate his comment, but it wouldn’t boost my efficacy much.
The last source of self-efficacy is how we appraise our emotional state. The feelings of anxiety and excitement are actually highly similar in terms of their physiological response.
What affects our self-efficacy is if we view this physical feeling as a positive or negative response.
It took me around 2 years when I first turned pro to turn that 1st tee feeling of anxiety into one that I enjoyed. After two years I had good evidence to suggest I actually played well when I felt this anxious~excited-ness.
How to start building your confidence and self-efficacy
Let us now look at how you can start building your confidence. To begin with we will aim to build your self-efficacy in the area(s) you picked above. It is a small start, but over a few weeks these small gains will start to feed through into your overall confidence as a golfer.
Practice performance accomplishments
Pick a game that you can play in practice. The skills game should be:
- Focused on the area you wish to improve.
- Measurable (have a score)
- Repeatable (bar weather conditions, it should stay the same each week).
- Scaleable (you should be able to make it more difficult when you complete a challenge).
Once you’ve chosen your game, each week make an effort to play it and record your score. It helps to reflect and think how you could score higher next time. For example; are your shots all missing one side, or long/short of your target.
This is a simple, possibly boring process, but the reason I’m giving it to you is that it actually works. Choose one skills game for each area and document your progress. That is your one task to begin this epic journey.
Below is my own personal example.
Building confidence & self-efficacy – Applied example
10 weeks ago I realised my wedge game was poor. It was an area I had been struggling with for a while and I considered myself low in self-efficacy. I didn’t dread wedge shots, but my focus was equally distributed between worrying about hitting a push or hook, as it was on trying to hit my target.
I decided to play a mini version (40 balls) of Flag-stick challenge once a week (when I wasn’t writing 2,000 word golf psych articles). Read below and check out the video to learn more about this simple game.
Golf Insider skills game: Flag-stick challenge is a great game for short irons and wedges. Pick 3 targets between 60 – 130 yards. You have 20 shots at each target. You receive 1 point for each shot that finishes within a flagstick length of the hole, no points if they finish outside this distance (yep – it’s tough!).
I tracked my score and reflected each week using my snazzy performance diary (plug). I then transferred the scores each month to the practice stats sheet you see below (grab your free golf practice download here).
You can see the first few weeks I sucked. I didn’t enjoy playing it much, but each week I took note of where I was missing the target and did my best to improve.
When I got onto the golf course I did my best to remember the few great shots I had hit in practice. Albeit few and far between these were my performance accomplishments.
Six weeks in and things started to click. I had a good practice session then proceeded to hole out from 128 yards in a match. You can see that since then my practice performance has continued to pick up.
Now I have far more pieces of data to draw on to support the fact I am actually getting better. I’m not epic just yet, but I plan to play this game 3 times a month for the entire winter.
If I manage to do so I can’t wait to see how much self-efficacy and performance grows into 2019.
Golf psychology conclusion (for now)
In this first instalment we’ve outlined a few key areas of golf psychology and you have some tools to start growing your confidence.
I’m a geeky nerd. My aim was to show you how you can take something important but ‘fluffy’ like confidence and make it tangible and data-driven.
I alway appreciate your comments and feedback. Share this article with a golfing friend and sign up to the Golf Insider weekly post if you don’t want to miss the next instalment in the coming weeks.
Happy golfing – Will @ Golf Insider